Credence

I started wondering about the use of the word credence when I noticed the following headline on an entertainment news site:
Al Pacino gives credence to James Gunn’s ‘Guardians of the Galaxy’
The noun credence (KREE-dns] usually functions as a synonym for credibility or believability. For example, “The premise of the argument lacks credence.”
As much as I enjoyed the Gunn film, I find nothing believable about a tree creature that wins everyone’s affection by saying the same three words again and again, or a genetically engineered raccoon with anger issues. I decided to find out if credence has another meaning that fits the context of that headline.
Credence belongs to a family of English words that derive from the Latin verb credere, “to believe.” For example:
credo: a religious belief, a guide to behavior.
credible: believable.
credential: official documentation indicating that a person may be trusted.
credit: favorable reputation; trustworthiness in financial matters.
creditable: that which does a person credit, praiseworthy.
credulity: a readiness to believe.
credulous: inclined to believe on the basis of little evidence.
The noun credence occurs most often in the idiom “to lend (or give) credence to”:
“It really gives credence to the live singing in the movie to see them actually do it live onstage,” Meron said.
We seem to live in a celebrity world. A world where being famous has more credence than being brilliant or a good person.
During the McCarthy Era, suspicions were often given credence despite inconclusive or questionable evidence.
The study lends credence to what scientists have long suspected: “If you want to recover birds, you need to recover the food that they’re eating.”
Less used is the phrase “to pay credence to.” It occurs where the verb “to respect” would usually be clearer and more succinct:
Alas, I am a liberal. I am honour-bound to pay credence to the rantings and ravings of other people and not simply discard them for being ridiculous.
People don’t pay credence to cultural health,” Simmons said. 
Originally, the idea was to pay credence to those in our lives who help us succeed.
University administrators have become more mediators than foes, as they negotiate how to balance the principles of free speech, to which they pay credence, with students’ safety and well-being. 
I continue to puzzle over the headline.
Here are some adjectives that can serve to convey one’s feeling that a thing is believable:
creditable
probable
possible
feasible
reasonable
rational
sound
admirable
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Source: Vocabulary

Calculus

A reader writes,
The other day I heard a radio commentator constantly using the phrase “in that calculus”, something I’d never heard before. [The] commentator was using it in a political context, pretty much as a fancy way of saying “in that situation”; I’d be grateful if you could look into it and cover it some time!
Calculus is one of those words like parameter and paradigm that have been yanked from their habitual scientific contexts into the general vocabulary by non-scientists to make their utterances sound more profound.
In the context of mathematics, the word calculus is usually preceded by differential or integral:
integral calculus: a branch of mathematics concerned with the theory and applications (as in the determination of lengths, areas, and volumes and in the solution of differential equations) of integrals and integration.
differential calculus: a branch of mathematics concerned chiefly with the study of the rate of change of functions with respect to their variables especially through the use of derivatives and differentials.
Calculus is the diminutive of Latin calx, “stone.” A calculus was a little stone or pebble. The plural, calculi gives us the word calculation because pebbles were used for counting. Calculi were also used as game pieces and for voting.
In the context of medicine, calculus is a hard deposit that builds up in the body to produce kidney stones, plaque, and such.
The word calculus is now to be found in a variety of contexts:
Competition along routes is just one variable in that calculus. (The context is a discussion of the process of airline pricing.)
They are casting Ellsworth as an unwilling enabler who will further an agenda even though he might not fully support it. And, in that calculus, his vote for Speaker of the House comes first and foremost.
No medical intervention is 100% safe. However vaccines are remarkably safe…It is risk versus benefit and in that calculus vaccines win.
J. C. Watts Endorsing Newt Gingrich is Awful Political Calculus
In New Calculus on Smoking, It’s Health Gained vs. Pleasure Lost
The political calculus on immigration reform changes day by day, but the moral calculus has not.
It seems to me that in each of these examples, situation, calculation, or thinking would serve the context.
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Source: Vocabulary

Stalwart

A reader asks for clarification regarding the word stalwart:
I am confused about the meaning of “stalwart” in the following context: “One of the most influential companies in high technology right now may be a 135-year-old industrial stalwart.” According to OED, as a noun, stalwart means “loyalist, hard-working supporter.” Nonetheless, I fail to grasp the meaning of stalwart qualified by industrial as adjective.
As a noun, stalwart has more than one meaning; “loyal supporter” is only one of them.
Stalwart began as an adjective.
The Old English adjective stalworth was applied to things like ships to mean “serviceable.” When applied to people and animals, it meant, “strongly and stoutly built.” The meaning extended to include brave, courageous, and valiant. In Scots dialect, the word became stalwart and was reintroduced into English thanks to the popularity of the novels of Sir Walter Scott.
In modern usage, stalwart functions as both adjective and noun.
Adjective
As an adjective, stalwart means, resolute, unbending, and determined, as well as brave, courageous, and valiant. For example:
The epic valor of the Greeks in driving back the Italian invaders together with Britain’s stalwart resistance to Hitler’s crushing blows, has given new meaning to human courage in war.
Her stalwart defense of the environment in Maryland is embodied in her support for building a green jobs workforce, protecting the Chesapeake Bay, and for a clean energy economy.
Noun
“A stalwart” can be a person who has achieved wide recognition in some business or pursuit:
Hollywood stalwart Ernest Borgnine dies at age 95
Josh H. Groce, a noted stalwart of the Texas trial bar
Or it can refer to a company or institution that has been in operation for a long time. This is the sense in which stalwart is used in the sentence submitted by the reader. Here are some more examples of this use of stalwart to refer to a company:
Sales for the New York-based pharmaceutical stalwart were $13.56 billion against last year’s $13.89 billion.
The remaining companies experiencing growth last year [included] electronics retailer HHGregg Inc. and pharmaceutical stalwart Eli Lilly and Co.
And while many of its architects are well-known Silicon Valley companies, longtime Milwaukee industrial stalwart Rockwell Automation Inc. has positioned itself at the heart of the phenomenon, which some consider the next industrial revolution.
Finally, in the context of politics, the noun stalwart means, “a sturdy uncompromising partisan”:
AIPAC lauds re-election of pro-Israel stalwarts
First deficit panel picks are Democratic stalwarts
Utah is overall a conservative state much in line with the public policy principles of Republican stalwarts like Gov. Mitt Romney, Gov. Michael Leavitt and Gov. Jon Huntsman. 
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Source: Vocabulary

An Came First

A reader writes:

I propose that “an” was invented to prevent us from having to interrupt the flow of speech. And it still fills that purpose before unaccented first syllables starting with h.

This comment suggests that the indefinite article form an developed from the form a as a means of facilitating pronunciation.

Unlike Esperanto, English is not an invented language, but the product of more than a thousand years of development. An was not invented to facilitate the flow of language. Neither did it begin its life as “an indefinite article.” It started out as a numeric adjective.

The English indefinite article a/an derives from the Old English word for one: ane. The word was written ane, anne, aenne and aene in its various declensions. As it evolved into our modern indefinite article, sometimes it signified the number one and sometimes the article a.

For example, in an OE version of the New Testament parable of the workmen who are all paid the same for different amounts of work, the owner of the vineyard pays them “anne pening,” that is, “one penny.” In the account of the voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan, Ohthere refers to Skiringssal as “an port,” that is, “a port.”

Even in modern usage, the article a/an can be used in the sense of “one,” as in, “I’ll have a hamburger, a cherry Coke, and two orders of fries.”

Like the reader whose comment prompted this post, some modern speakers feel that that an “still fills [a] purpose before unaccented first syllables starting with h.” According to a note in the OED, “many (perhaps most) writers down to the 19th century retained an before sounded h and some even before eu, u, as “an historian,” “an euphonic vowel,” and “an united appeal.” Most modern usage guides, however, recommend a. That’s not to say that you can’t say “an historic” if you want to.

Related posts:
A Useful Reminder About An
A Historic vs. An Historic

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Source: Daily Tips

Feckless

A reader has called my attention to a surge in the use of the word feckless in the American press. A Web search garners 1,550,000 hits.
Feckless derives from feck, a dialect word possibly formed by a linguistic process called aphaeresis: “omission of one or more sounds or letters from the beginning of a word.”
Examples of aphaeresis include: squire from esquire and coon from raccoon. Feck, which is documented as early as the 14th century, is probably a shortening of the noun effect. Feck is “energy and gumption.” A person with feck gets things done.
When used to refer to a thing, the adjective feckless means, “valueless, futile, or feeble.”
Used to refer to a person or a person’s actions, feckless means, “lacking energy; weak, helpless.”
In modern usage, feckless is used chiefly as a synonym for irresponsible or shiftless. This latter use of feckless is especially common in the British press in headlines and articles relating to social welfare programs:
Britain’s most feckless father? Unemployed dad of 10 is expecting FOUR more children –The Telegraph.
Let’s get the feckless to buy food – not fags and booze –MailOnline.
No one would consider her [a young unmarried mother of four children, by two different men, and expecting her fifth] to be anything other than feckless and irresponsible. –The Independent.
The Oxfam report – “Walking The Breadline,” published in June this year, states that half a million people in the UK rely on food banks. Yet the Government puts their fingers in their ears, blaming feckless parenting and scroungers. –The Guardian.
Here are some examples in contexts other than discussions of welfare recipients:
Given their feckless track record, would you really trust Apple with (even more of) your digital life? –Source uncertain; the comment appears on numerous sites.
One striking feature in all three works is how badly the men do; how feckless they are, how treacherous, weepy, self-obsessed and violent. –Review of a collection of three short stories by Bernhard Schlink.
Because the usual use of feckless is to describe people or actions lacking in will or responsible purpose, some of the examples I found left me a bit puzzled:
Delete a Feckless Effect from Filler
Edgar Steele’s Feckless Racism
Here are some sure fire home remedies and tips to get rid of your feckless and lifeless hair.
The opposite of feckless–feckful (powerful, effective, efficient, vigorous)–is used seriously in an OED citation dated 1568:
I culd nocht cum…without sum gret and fecfull purpois.
[I could not come...without some great and feckful purpose.]
Anyone using the positive adjective feckful nowadays would be aiming for humorous effect, as in this 1990 quotation from The New York Times:
The unfailingly feckless Bertie Wooster and his valet, the formidably feckful Jeeves.
Sometimes feckless is the perfect choice, but sometimes not. Here is a selection of words that might serve better in some contexts:
good-for-nothing
idle
indolent
inept
irresponsible
lazy
ne’er-do-well
no-account
slothful
sorry
useless
worthless
David Auburn, playwright and contributor to the Oxford American Writer’s Thesaurus, says this about feckless:
The obscene-sounding first syllable gives punch and an air of harsh condemnation to the synonym for irresponsible, conveying “not merely irresponsible but also unforgivably blithe, and in one’s blitheness, causing great harm.”
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Source: Vocabulary

Flirts and Philanderers

When I was a child, I learned that the name Philadelphia derives from the Greek words philos (loving) and adelphos (brother) and that William Penn chose the name because he wanted to establish “a city of brotherly love.”
I’ve recently learned that the word philander derives from the Greek words philos (loving) and andro (man/male) and that in ancient Greek it meant “a lover of men.”
According to a note in the OED, the word in Hellenistic Greek could also be applied to a woman who loved the man who was her husband.
Philander was appropriated by 17th century poets as a stock name for a lover and came to be used for any man known for his popularity with women:
You know I was always a Philander among the ladies.” (OED citation, 1785)
In modern use, philander has become a verb that has in turn produced the agent noun philanderer.
philander (verb): to engage in casual sexual encounters. Used chiefly of men.
philanderer (noun): a man who philanders.
Both the OED and Merriam-Webster give flirt as a synonym for philanderer, but philanderer is more negative and gender-specific than flirt. Either a man or a woman may be a flirt, but a philanderer is a man.
Another difference is that flirting applies to a playful sort of sexual innuendo that does not assume sexual activity, while philandering connotes promiscuity and lack of marital or romantic integrity. Here are examples of recent use of philandering and philanderer:
Power and philandering seem to go hand in hand. 
Actor Jon Hamm has played the philandering ad executive Don Draper on the American Movie Classics show Mad Men.
Unlike many presidents, Nixon had never been suspected of being a philanderer.
[In] 2007, Vitter was exposed as a paying philanderer.
Here are some additional words that are or have been used to describe men of loose character:
Casanova
Don Juan
Lothario
playboy
rake
roué
skirt-chaser
womanizer
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Source: Vocabulary

Ethereal

A letter to the editor written by an environmentalist contains this use of the adjective ethereal:
Contaminated air and water and ethereal space apparently are of no concern [to capitalists].
Here ethereal seems to refer to the physical area above the earth, what I might call “the atmosphere.”
Referring to “ethereal space” in this context is not, strictly speaking, incorrect. The “ethereal realm” is the area above the clouds, but the adjective is closely associated with the supernatural. In general usage, it usually refers to heaven or to creatures or things that are otherworldly:
Several belief systems include ethereal beings such as ghosts, mythological entities, nature spirits, angels, thought-forms, [and] jinns.
Note: Chemists use ethereal with the meaning, “characteristic of, or resembling diethyl ether.” In general usage, however, ethereal is rarely used in a literal sense to describe things in the physical universe.
As an adjective to describe people or objects, ethereal means, “spiritual, non-physical, or abstract in nature; supernatural; incorporeal; nebulous.” It also means, “of a lightness, delicacy, or refinement that does not appear to belong to this world; otherworldly.”
Here are some examples these uses of ethereal:
Fog surrounds a frozen volcano in this ethereal photograph.
The ethereal beauty and benefits of snow
Flowing organza gives this A-line wedding dress an ethereal look.
Gram’s brother used to tease her when she complained. “Oh you’re so frail, so fragile, so ethereal,” he’d say.
Audrey [Hepburn] was meek, gentle and ethereal, understated both in her life and in her work. 
Here are some synonyms for ethereal in its various senses:
heavenly
celestial
unearthly
delicate
exquisite
dainty
graceful
fragile
airy
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Source: Vocabulary

Tips on How to Write Essays

Talking about essay, it is a short piece of writing on a given subject. Essays writing has always been remained a real passion, dedication, and enthusiasm for the creative writers for decades. Creative essay writing is such a competitive and challenging field that includes a wide range of features such as imagination, abstraction, vision, inspiration, creativity, dedication, self motivation, and originality. That is why essay writing only remains the work of highly genius minded people all the time. Today we are going to illustrate few tips on how to write an essay. Please read below:

Make an outline of your topic first as this is the essence of essays writing. Generally an essay outline consists of the title of the essay, introduction, explanation, reasons and causes, pros and cons, and finally the conclusion. Each outline varies from topic to topic. For example, if your essay topic is terrorism then you should make a comprehensive essay outline involving title, introduction, causes and factors of terrorism, examples, measures to eradicate terrorism, and summary. After making an essay outline, it becomes of the essence for you to write essay in a fully composed, dedicated and professional manner.

Example are so important for essay writing, so do not hesitate to quote examples while essays writing at all. On the other hand, you could use a case study so as to make your topic as completely hot, crispy, and newsy for the readers. Use headings, subheadings, bullets, and numbering where is becomes mandatory. Include the latest facts, figures, and information since they are so much crucial while creative essays writing. For example, if you essay topic is terrorism then you should include the number of causalities, injuries, and deaths in your topic.

Be fluent, persistent, and rational while essays writing otherwise you will be given no mark at all. Most importantly, try to be synchronized as much as you can since it is the backbone of essay writing. For example, your each word, sentence, line, heading, subheading, etc. must be matching with the above mentioned content logically. If not, then your topic will be called as unsynchronized essay. So, try to be rational, logical, convenient, and exemplary while essay writing as you will be graded very high than the whole lot eventually.

Last but not the least; try to become cohesive as much as you can since it is the most fundamental element of essay writing. Do not confuse the things at all. Despite of this, try to become simple, smart, sharp, logical, and creative while essay writing. Also do not include irrelevant material, headings, subheadings, etc. in your essay as they will do nothing regarding your essays ranking at all. If you follow these tips on essays writing, then you will be surely able to create and produce a memorable essay for the readers forever.

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/writing-articles/tips-on-how-to-write-essays-3157997.html

Author: Emily Grace

Top Five Places to Write Essays

Top Five Places to Write Essays

Are you wondering why you cannot find the right words to write despite your good research materials? Are you in a state of disorganized thoughts when no right words and phrases seem to come out?   Maybe you are having some sort of writer’s block.  Writer’s block is a condition where a writer is unable to write new ideas due to some difficulties in organizing his thoughts and expressing the same in writing.  Although this has been a recognized term for inability to write, the truth is that there is no such thing as writer’s block. This is a superficial condition due to some factors that may affect the writer’s mood to write.  One of this is the environment setting.  The place where you try to write affects your concentration as you need an environment that is conducive for writing. Just like any other mind activities, writing should be done in a place where your creative side will be fully stimulated and inspired. Even if you have finished extensive research, you will not be able to create a well written article when your mind is distracted. You have to look for a place where your imagination and creativity can be at their best.

Normally, the library is the best place to write your essay.  You can find all the possible references that will give you sufficient information in order to complete your article.   The library is a place where silence is maintained at all times, which therefore creates a serene environment for writers like you.

But the library is not the only place where you can write your essays. You can write a well written article even at your own home. Inside your house you can find two best places to compose an essay. The first one is in your own bedroom which is certainly your own self sanctuary.   Some of the best writers used and continue to use their bedroom to write their bestselling novels. The bedroom is a famous place to write for writers because of its cozy and relaxing atmosphere. It is certainly a writer’s refuge where you  can think of unlimited, creative and brilliant ideas.

Another part of the house where you can set up your working table is in the garden, especially in the morning.  The smell of blooming flowers and the sound of chirping birds invite a pleasant and positive energy that can keep you on a writing mood, not to mention the gentle touch of the morning breeze and the vibrant morning sunshine.

However, a monotonous environment is not also conducive for writing.  Sometimes, writers need to change their environment to revive their creative side.  In case you get bored with your present environment and you can no longer think of any ideas to write, the park is the next best place to write.  Tall trees and grasses create a relaxing ambience needed to keep away writer’s block.  Ideas will come out spontaneously when you are focused and in a friendly and interesting place.

Lastly, the coffee shop is one of the best places to write if you are not in the mood for a secluded environment but still has the warmth and homely atmosphere that will help you think of new ideas.

A place to write is certainly a crucial factor in producing a well written article. A writer, just like a painter, a musician or a composer, needs to be inspired. The place to write essays is important because it is from that place where the writer initially draws his inspiration to write.   Despite having all the research materials, a writer can only make a well written and inspiring article when he is not distracted by his environment.

For more essay writing tips, visit our website at smartessaywriters.com

Article Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/college-and-university-articles/top-five-places-to-write-essays-5757139.html

Author:

Smart Essay Writer

Earn money through online writing jobs

Earn money through online writing jobs

While many of us enjoy chatting and discussing over various social networks such as twitter and Facebook, some people work as freelancers to earn money while writing articles for online marketing requirements. It is very easy to attain simple writing jobs and you can attain many opportunities directly while searching and browsing through internet. However, it is always beneficial to join a professional website facilitating job opportunities for many freelancers. Simple writing jobs include writing marketing and advertizing articles, product reviews, informative articles and similar other jobs.

When you join a professional website offering work for freelancers, you are offered a security that you will get paid to write articles without any trouble. These websites work as helping hand making sure that you attain proper safety and easy transfer of money for all the articles written by you. In case you come across some disputes while writing articles for various clients, the professional freelancing websites offer intermediating servicers to resolve the issues without any ruckus.

In order to earn good money through online writing jobs, you will have to provide quality articles to satisfy the customers need. If you are able to convey your ideas in clear and proper manner, you have better chance to earn success as an article writer. You will have to attract readers through your writing skills. Some clients require interactive articles that may create interest in the minds of readers. Various online entrepreneurs demand marketing articles with proper search engine optimization techniques to attract higher traffic for their websites. In order to increase the visitors count, many commercial website owners require help to attain regular blog posts. Thus you can easily get paid for writing articles based on SEO and marketing skills or you may work to improve books and movies scripts.

Many housewives prefer to work directly online from their home while taking care of their kids and regular homely chores because online writing jobs are not very difficult to perform and one can easily set their working hours without any restrictions. In order to attain various writing jobs, you may opt to join websites offering jobs for freelancers as that will allow you to browse through various available jobs. This will allow you to opt to write for those subjects for which you feel easy to write.
If you are looking for lucrative writing jobs to earn easy money while working online directly from your home, join the website http://bit.ly/1ulbzOc and start making money right from now.

 

Earn money through online writing jobs

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